Disasters differ in nature from region to region, time to time. And the best people to engage and get support from in any area, is with the sufferers themselves, who know the place and the perils concerned best. Instead of implementing ideas top-down, experts agree that efforts should involve grassroots communities for effective disaster management. Joshimath for example, was in the news recently and evacuation and safety actions were taken in close coordination with the locals. Here it was a situation of fault lines causing buildings to break and cracks to form in houses and homes.
People need to be trained to take risks seriously and understand that their involvement has to be non-negotiable if the larger objective is to be achieved. Regular drills and workshops are important. Street-theatre performances can also improve outreach. All information and instructions shared must be expressed in simple language, so everyone can understand.
Anticipation, prevention and preparedness is the primary task and rescue and rehabilitation becomes the priority once the disaster has actually occurred.